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With current language models and machine learning, both the rate of writing and the rate of publication has grown in recent years. Here’s a list of books produced by artificial intelligence software.
The list is not exhaustive, but I’ve included a variety of novels that give an overview of the many genres created in AI literature.
A take on Jack Kerouac’s famous On the Road novel. Artificial intelligence has been fed with data from automobile time sensors (GPS, driving camera, and microphone) and has produced one long mass of text that has been published without being edited.
By: Ross Goodwin
Here’s how it starts: “It was nine seventeen in the morning, and the house was heavy”
Andreas Refsgaard and Mikkel Thybo Loonen’s booksby.ai site has a variety of books created entirely by artificial intelligence. The char-rnn-tensorflow language model is the framework used to generate the texts. Artificial intelligence also assisted in generating book covers and pricing.
The text is AI-nonsense, i.e., it isn’t grammatically or ideologically meaningful, based to the text samples.
Author: Shevinja Fogoloff (apparently a pseudonym)
Here’s how it starts: “That the moon must repeat to the travel of Mars, Mary that, now will well come before us parton did never be merely entirely escaped.”
Aum Golly* is a poetry book written by myself and GPT-3 . It was done within 24 hours, initially in English and then translated into Finnish within the same 24 hours. Aum Golly was published Basam Books in the spring of 2021. The book’s title, theme, and poems have been developed by the GPT-3 language model.
This is what Nautilus writes about Aum Golly: “What’s remarkable is that though GPT-3 might not (yet) be Pablo Neruda, the resultant poetry is surprisingly not that bad.”
What is noteworthy compared to many of the other books on this list is that Aum Golly’s poems are quite coherent. Of course, poetry is easier in terms of machine learning and artificial intelligence than, for example, short stories or novels.
Here is an example of one of Aum Golly’s poems:
if kites flew like boomerangs
and all the stars were made of glass
the moon’s face was a silver mask
and the sun a golden apple
and I saw a storm of diamonds
sow the sky with light
I saw a river of stars
dance down the night
I saw a hundred flying horses
streaming through the sky
Authors: Jukka Aalho and GPT-3
Here’s how it starts: “This is how the boomerang song goes”
This short story by a Japanese research group is written with the joint effort of man and machine. The article describes how the research team designed a story framework for artificial intelligence, which the model then completed. The structure of a single piece could thus be, for example, “describe the room, describe the weather, and describe the character”.
Researchers submitted the novel to the Hoshi Shinichi Award writing competition, where the short story passed its first qualifying round – that is, in 2015 it passed its own Turing test.
Authors: Yurei Raita (pseudonym), Sato-Matsuzaki Laboratory
Here’s how it starts: “The day was an overcast one, with clouds pooled overhead.”
Writing novels and short stories using AI is still tricky, but shorter forms are easier. Bob the Robot is a children’s book written with the help of artificial intelligence, published in 2020.
At the beginning of the book, the author describes that the book is written by an algorithm based 80% on NLP (natural language processing) and machine learning. I did not find more detailed information.
Many creative projects utilizing artificial intelligence have been carried out in Finland. One of them is the Paratiisiperhe, a radio play released in the spring of 2021.
A number of machine learning or computer-aided projects and works have been done in the field of poetry and literature over the years. You can use Nokturno’s Loihe, Kalevala spell generator in Finnish right here.
The only Finnish AI-enhanced book to make it into books and covers is Aum Golly, published by Basam Books in 2021. The line between conventional writing and AI-assisted storytelling is becoming harder to draw so we expect much more to follow.
A fully updated list of mostly English-language artificial intelligence books may be found at lifearchitect.ai. If a project you’re familiar with, particularly one from Finland, isn’t included in this list, suggest it in the comments.